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ABKHAZIA  AND SOCHI 2_edited.jpg

Abkhazia and Sochi: The Roots of the Conflict


Copyright © 2014 by Andrew Andersen

All rights reserved.

Asteroid Publishing, Inc.


ISBN: 978-1-926720-34-0



No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means; graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or by any information storage retrieval system, without the written permission of the publisher/author.


Maps by: Andrew Andersen and

George Partskhaladze

Photograph contributors:

Irina Amilakhvari, Yuri Chikovani,

Paata Kurdovanidze, Igor Stepanov and

Levan Urushadze

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To my parents


  • Introduction 

  • Restoration of Georgian independence   

  • Territorial formation of Georgia at the wake of independence   

  • Ethnic composition of Abkhazia in the early 20th century   

  • Political atmosphere in Abkhazia in 1917 - early 1918   

  • The outbreak of the civil war and the first Bolshevik campaign in Abkhazia   

  • Тhe second Bolshevik campaign in Abkhazia   

  • Arrival of Georgian troops and de-Bolshevisation of Sukhum district  

  • Martial law and the emergence of the Sochi question   

  • The district of Sochi: historical borders and ethnic composition as of the early 20th century   

  • Turkish intervention in the lower Kodor: disagreement between researchers   

  • Mazniashvili’s campaign in the Black Sea province and Kuban   

  • Political atmosphere in Abkhazia, as of July-August 1918   

  • New changes in the military and political situation in the fall of 1918   

  • The surrender of the Turkish landing force in lower Kodor  

  • German presence in Abkhazia (Sukhum district) and the Black Sea province   

  • The outbreak of conflict between Georgia and the Volunteer Army regarding the delimitation   

  • An abortive coup attempt in Sukhum and dissolution of the APC   

  • The first offensive of the Volunteer Army on Sochi  

  • Attempted British mediation and Denikin’s demarches   

  • The second offensive of the Volunteer Army on Sochi and Sukhum     

  • The beginning of British Intervention in Abkhazia   

  • General Denikin takes the role of an advocate of Abkhazian independence   

  • Georgia states her territorial claims at the Paris Peace Conference   

  • Georgian counteroffensive on Gagry and Sochi  

  • The British approaches to the conflict between the AFSR and the “Border States” of the South Caucasus   

  • The tripartite political manoeuvres around the new demarcation line   

  • Georgian-AFSR relations and “the Green Movement” in the Black Sea province between June 1919 and April 1920   

  • The collapse of the AFSR and CLBSC; Red Army approaches Georgian border; the peace treaty of May 1920   

  • The build-up of autonomous Abkhazia within Georgia in 1919-1921   

  • Clerical conflicts and reforms in Abkhazia and Sochi in 1918-1920   

  • Conclusions   

  • Bibliography   

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